What is it?
A forensic image is an electronic copy of a drive (e.g. a hard drive, USB, etc.). It’s a bit-by-bit or bitstream file that’s an exact, unaltered copy of the media being duplicated.
How is it done?
Wikipedia said that the most straightforward disk imaging method is to read a disk from start to finish and write the data to a forensics image format. “This can be a time-consuming process, especially for disks with a large capacity,” Wikipedia said.
To prevent write access to the disk, you can use a write blocker. It’s also common to calculate a cryptographic hash of the entire disk when imaging it. “Commonly-used cryptographic hashes are MD5, SHA1 and/or SHA256,” said Wikipedia. “By recalculating the integrity hash at a later time, one can determine if the data in the disk image has been changed. This by itself provides no protection against intentional tampering, but it can indicate that the data was altered, e.g. due to corruption.”
Why image a disk?
There are two reasons. Forensic imaging:
- Prevents tampering with the original data evidence
- Allows you to play around with the copy, without worrying about messing up the original